(a) National Policy and Strategy on Solid Waste Management 2018-2025 (regulated by Presidential Regulation No. 97/2017), which includes strategy implemented at provincial and city/regency levels
(b) Acceleration of controlling and restoring Citarum River pollution and degradation (Regulated by Presidential Regulation No. 15/2018)
(c) Acceleration of Waste-to-energy projects in 12 cities (Regulated by Presidential Regulation No. 35/2018)
(d) National Plan of Action for Combating Marine Litter 2018-2025 (Regulated by Presidential Regulation No. 83/2018)
(e) Solid Waste Disposal Support Fund (Regulated by Ministry of Environment and Forestry Regulation No. P.24/2019)
(f) Enhancing Funding Mechanisms, Policy Reform and Law Enforcement:
Funding mechanisms for the National Plan of Action (NpoA) is expected mainly coming from regional and national budgets and supported by International organizations and partnering countries can be expected to finance the implementation of NpoA.
(a) The target of national policy and strategy is to reduce waste from its source by 30% and to handle waste properly by 70% in 2025.
(b) The target of plan of action is to reduce marine litter by 70% in 2025.
(c) In the context of plan of action for combating marine litter 2018-2025, there are five strategies to be implemented including:
- National movement to increase stakeholder’s awareness;
- Land-based waste management;
- Waste management on the coast and sea;
- Funding mechanisms, institutional strengthening, supervision and law enforcement;
- Research and development.
1. National Movements for Improving Behavioral Change
Stakeholder awareness should lead to an efficient and effective involvement in managing marine plastic debris due to huge number of stakeholders spread out in all regions, while showing co-ownership in solving the problem will be the reflection of nongovernment stakeholders’ engagement.
2. Controlling Land-Based Leakage
Marine litter, mostly plastics, could come from urban activities that carried into the ocean through river, canal, drainage, storm water, sewerage system, etc. The improvement of solid waste management to become more sustainable is a key; that is shifting from end of pipe and linier solutions to 3Rs, EPR and circular solutions.
3. Handling Coastal & Sea Based Leakages
Garbage found in the ocean could come from many sources; including ships, fishing lines and pleasure boats. Monitoring, surveillance, and law enforcement on Ocean littering are main measurements.
4. Enhancing Funding Mechanisms, Policy Reform and Law Enforcement
Funding mechanisms for the National Plan of Action (NPoA) is expected mainly coming from regional and national budgets and supported by International organizations and partnering countries can be expected to finance the implementation of NPoA.
5. Research & Development
Coastal-Marine ecosystems worldwide are affected by marine debris, much of which is plastic. The R&D is important key to prevent and solve the problems from various ways including handling marine plastic debris from its source till on the ocean as well as alternative material for plastic and develop an innovation scheme for circular economy.
- Ministry of Environment and Forestry finalizes the roadmap of producers’ waste reduction program in line with the Extended Producer Responsibility (EPR) approach. Three sectors are specifically regulated in this roadmap, which includes (1) brand-owner manufacturer, (2) retailer, and (3) food and beverage service industry (hotel, restaurant, cafe & catering). The roadmap intends to provide a guideline on how producers should reduce waste that are generated from their product and packaging, especially those which are made of plastics. Actions suggested in the roadmap include: (1) to avoid unnecessary use of single-use plastic products, including in packaging, (2) to re-design product/packaging so that become more recyclable and reusable, and (3) to manage post-consumer plastic products to be recycled and reused.
- At the aspect of phasing out single-use plastic, there are 2 provincial governments and 19 cities/regencies have banned and have planned to ban plastic shopping bag, plastics straw, and plastic foam (well-known as styrofoam).
- Government of Indonesia has provided financial schemes to improve local governments’ capacity in waste management including:
- National budget allocation to construct new landfills or rehabilitate existing landfills;
- Special budget allocation to construct solid waste management facilities such as composting facility, waste bank facility, collection & transportation vehicle, and recycling facility. Special budget subsidy allocation for local government to pay additional tipping fee for operating and maintaining WTE facility.
- National incentive budget for local government that succeed to prevent and reduce plastic waste generation.
- Government of Indonesia in collaboration with local governments, NGOs, businesses, society organisations, and citizens have been conducting awareness raising programs that promote the reduction of single-use plastic usage. The programs are carried out through communication, information, and education activities using any types of channel including social media, TV dialogue, radio talk show, newspaper, public campaign, exhibition, clean up movement, less waste event, and stakeholder engagement.
- MOEF has been conducting programme called the Program Adiwiyata or green school for more than 10 years. The programme is designed to apply basic aspect of environmentally way of life in daily school activities including cleaning the school, less waste schooling, waste separation, composting, up cycle packaging waste, greening the school, water preservation, toilet management, and rainwater harvesting. MOEF and Ministry of Education and Culture (MOEC) work together to add environmental awareness and waste management issues to both national and local curricula at primary and junior-high school levels.
- In the context of research and development, Indonesia has conducted survey and data collection and data quality improvement of marine litter as follows:
- Survey and monitor marine litter in 18 locations using UNEP Marine Litter Survey and Monitoring Guideline carried out by Ministry of Environment and Forestry (MOEF).
- Marine Debris Rapid Hotspot Assessment in 15 locations carried out by Coordinating Ministry of Maritime Affairs with financial support from the World Bank.
- Research on Marine Litter and Microplastics in Indonesia conducted by Centre for Oceanographic Research Indonesia Institute of Science in the following specific location including: 18 administrative locations of plastics waste, 13 locations of microplastics in water, 8 locations of microplastics in sediment, and 10 locations of microplastics in marine biotas.
- Indonesia is the first designated model of National Plastic Action Partnership (NPAP) The national partnership forms part of the larger Global Plastic Action Partnership (GPAP), with the vision of averting plastic pollution by 2025 through fast-tracking circular economy solutions. GPAP is hosted by the World Economic Forum with support from the governments of Canada and the United Kingdom as well as global companies.
- The marine plastic litter data is still under investigation.
Note: Relevant indicators, data or other numerical information can be included at the discretion of each country, for example: (1) the amount of waste generated, reused, collected, recycled, and properly disposed of; (2) the amount of marine litter cleaned up; (3) the scale of use of innovative technologies and materials including R&D investment; (4) the scale and/or effect of assistance for countries that need technical capacity development including the increased amount of waste properly disposed of. (encouraged to indicate the proportion/elements of plastics and/or microplastics, if available)
- City of Banjarmasin in South Kalimantan is the first Indonesian city to ban plastic shopping bag at modern market. This local policy has been implementing since July 2016 and it is working well smoothly without any objections from citizen and businesses. It has been succeeded to meet the 2 main targets i.e. to reduce potential waste generation of plastic waste as amount of 52 million pieces of plastic bags (equivalent to 257 tons of plastic bags) a month; and to change behavior of citizen of Banjarmasin to shop without plastic bag and bring their own reusable bags. This success story then followed by other cities such as Balikpapan East Kalimantan, Bogor West Java, and Denpasar Bali.
- Province of Bali is another Indonesian best practice since Bali has banned three types of single-use plastic including plastic shopping bag, plastic straw, and plastic foam container (well known as styrofoam) since early 2019. The policy is working well in the ground without any objections from public and businesses. Even citizen of Bali and tourist who visiting Bali are fully supported this policy. However, the potential reduction of plastic waste is still under investigation, there is no data available yet.
Mr. Ujang Solihin Sidik
Deputy Director for Goods and Packaging, Directorate of Solid Waste Management, Ministry of Environment and Forestry, Republic of Indonesia